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Is acupuncture effective ? January 23, 2009

Posted by dorigo in news, science.
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I have always been highly sceptical on the utility of acupuncture, as much as on any other “alternative medicine” techniques. Man has practiced the most diverse healing techniques since thousands of years ago, and the lack of knowledge of the placebo effect has hampered the effectiveness of the “trial and error” approach, which on general grounds should be expected to slowly evolve and end up producing good results, given enough time. Some empirical techniques have survived to this day, and the onset of a scientific approach to medicine has not marginalized them as much as one would think reasonable.

To be fair, acupuncture should not be placed at the same level of deception as homeopathy, which is really just placebo dressed up with a pseudo-scientific dusting, with the aggravating condition that it is a parasitic technique of modern medicine, being based on active molecules known to be beneficial for the pathology they try to cure.

While homeopathy is based on the irrational and totally groundless belief that water remembers molecular structures it has come in contact with, acupuncture targets nerves of the human body, and those nerves are indeed connected to the central nervous system. It is quite possible that hitting the right nerves “distracts” the brain such that it alleviates the sensation of pain coming from other parts of the body. This is not such a far-fetched claim, after all: compared to water memory, it looks like good science.

Rigorous studies of the effectiveness of acupuncture therefore seem to be worth much more attention and funding than those on homeopathy. And studies have been done and are under way, focusing on the different applications of nerve stimulation techniques. The methods of investigation typically consist in comparing the response to therapy of patients treated with acupuncture to that of patients where acupuncture was applied to random parts of the body, not targeting the nerves it is supposed to aim at.

I have taken some time today to have a look at all the studies I could locate in the library of the Cochrane Collaboration, a serious institution which reviews the results of clinical studies. The Cochrane collaboration web site contains more than two dozen studies addressing the effect of acupuncture and similar techniques on the treatment of specific pathologies. I put together a list of those studies below, quoting from their abstracts the conclusions they draw. An interesting picture emerges.

  • Acupuncture for acute stroke: There is no clear evidence of benefit from acupuncture in acute stroke. […] Serious adverse effects were uncommon, and occurred in about one in every hundred patients treated.
  • Acupuncture for insomnia: Currently there is a lack of high quality clinical evidence supporting the treatment of people with insomnia using acupuncture.
  • Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea or vomiting: Electroacupuncture reduced first-day vomiting, but manual acupuncture did not. Acupressure reduced first-day nausea, but was not effective on later days. Acupressure showed no benefit for vomiting. Electrical stimulation on the skin showed no benefit. All trials also gave anti-vomiting drugs, but the drugs used in the electroacupuncture trials were not the most modern drugs, so it is not known if electroacupuncture adds anything to modern drugs. Trials of electroacupuncture with modern drugs are needed.
  • Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation: The review did not find consistent evidence that active acupuncture or related techniques increased the number of people who could successfully quit smoking. However, acupuncture may be better than doing nothing, at least in the short term; and there is not enough evidence to dismiss the possibility that acupuncture might have an effect greater than placebo.
  • Acupuncture for dysphagia in acute stroke: Only one small randomised controlled trial was identified, involving 66 participants, which did not provide clear evidence of benefit from adding acupuncture to standard Western medical treatment. Considering the small sample size and methodological imperfections, there is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture.
  • Acupuncture and assisted conception: The data from this meta-analysis suggests that acupuncture does increase the live birth rate with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment when performed around the time of embryo transfer. However, this could be attributed to placebo effect and the small number of trials included in the review.
  • Acupuncture for vascular dementia: There is no evidence from randomized controlled trials to determine whether acupuncture provides any effect when treating people with vascular dementia. Acupuncture is used to treat vascular dementia, but because no randomized controlled trials of acupuncture versus placebo were found, its efficacy and safety could not be analysed in this review. There is a need for randomized placebo controlled trials of acupuncture for people with vascular dementia.
  • Acupuncture and electroacupuncture for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: In one study, people had acupuncture or fake therapy for five weeks, once per week. Pain, number of swollen and tender joints, disease activity, overall well-being, lab results, or amount of pain medication needed was about the same whether they had acupuncture or fake therapy. In the other study, people had acupuncture with an electric current going through the needles at specific or real acupuncture spots in the knee or at fake spots in the knee. Knee pain while at rest, while moving or while standing decreased more in the people who had the real acupuncture. The improvement lasted up to 4 months after acupuncture. Unfortunately, the authors of this review believe that this trial was of low quality and may overestimate how well acupuncture works.
  • Acupuncture and dry-needling for low back pain: Thirty-five RCTs covering 2861 patients were included in this systematic review. There is insufficient evidence to make any recommendations about acupuncture or dry-needling for acute low-back pain. For chronic low-back pain, results show that acupuncture is more effective for pain relief than no treatment or sham treatment, in measurements taken up to three months. The results also show that for chronic low-back pain, acupuncture is more effective for improving function than no treatment, in the short-term. Acupuncture is not more effective than other conventional and “alternative” treatments. When acupuncture is added to other conventional therapies, it relieves pain and improves function better than the conventional therapies alone. However, effects are only small. Dry-needling appears to be a useful adjunct to other therapies for chronic low-back pain.
  • Acupuncture for migraine prophylaxis: We reviewed 22 trials which investigated whether acupuncture is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine. Six trials investigating whether adding acupuncture to basic care (which usually involves only treating acute headaches) found that those patients who received acupuncture had fewer headaches. Fourteen trials compared true acupuncture with inadequate or fake acupuncture interventions in which needles were either inserted at incorrect points or did not penetrate the skin. In these trials both groups had fewer headaches than before treatment, but there was no difference between the effects of the two treatments. In the four trials in which acupuncture was compared to a proven prophylactic drug treatment, patients receiving acupuncture tended to report more improvement and fewer side effects. Collectively, the studies suggest that migraine patients benefit from acupuncture, although the correct placement of needles seems to be less relevant than is usually thought by acupuncturists.
  • Acupuncture for restless legs syndrome: There is insufficient evidence to support the use of acupuncture for the symptomatic treatment of restless legs syndrome. The review did not find consistent evidence to determine whether acupuncture is effective and safe in the treatment of RLS, based on the two trials identified. More high quality trials are warranted before the routine use of acupuncture can be recommended for patients suffering from RLS.
  • Acupuncture for Bell’s palsy: This review aimed to review systematically all randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials, which examined the effectiveness of acupuncture for Bell’s palsy. Six studies including a total of 537 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five studies used acupuncture while the other used acupuncture combined with drugs. No trials reported on the outcomes specified for this review. Harmful side effects were not reported in any of the trials. Flaws in study design or reporting (particularly whether the process of assigning people to different groups was hidden and also substantial losses to follow-up), and clinical differences between trials prevented conclusions about the efficacy of acupuncture. The quality of the included trials was inadequate to allow any conclusion about theefficacy of acupuncture. More research with high quality trials is needed.
  • Acupuncture for glaucoma: We did not find any randomized clinical trials on the subject. The limited information from a few case series highlights the gap in the existing evidence. At this point, the effectiveness of acupuncture as a therapeutic modality for glaucoma could not be established.
  • Acupuncture for depression: There are studies indicating a preference for treatment with self-help and complementary therapies for depression. This review examined the efficacy and adverse effects of acupuncture in treating depression. Based on the findings from seven trials of low quality, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether acupuncture is effective in the management of depression.
  • Interventions (other than pharmacological, psychosocial or psychological) for treating antenatal depression: There is not enough evidence available to determine if maternal massage or depression-specific acupuncture interventions are effective in treating antenatal depression. The review found only one trial involving 61 US women evaluating maternal massage and depression-specific acupuncture (the insertion of needles into the tissue for remedial purposes) for the treatment of antenatal depression. This trial provided insufficient evidence to determine if these therapies are effective treatment for antenatal depression. Further research is needed.
  • Acupuncture for tension-type headache:We reviewed 11 trials which investigated whether acupuncture is effective in the prophylaxis of tension-type headache. Two large trials investigating whether adding acupuncture to basic care (which usually involves only treating unbearable pain with pain killers) found that those patients who received acupuncture had fewer headaches. Forty-seven percent of patients receiving acupuncture reported a decrease in the number of headache days by at least 50%, compared to 41% of patients in the groups receiving inadequate or ‘fake’ acupuncture. Three of the four trials in which acupuncture was compared to physiotherapy, massage or relaxation had important methodological shortcomings. Their findings are difficult to interpret, but collectively suggest slightly better results for some outcomes with the latter therapies. In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that acupuncture could be a valuable option for patients suffering from frequent tension-type headache.
  • Auricular acupuncture for cocaine dependence:The authors searched the medical literature for studies called randomized controlled trials, in which one group of patients receives  treatment (such as acupuncture) and is compared with a similar group who receives a different treatment or no treatment (the control group). The authors found seven studies with a total of 1433 people. Most of the studies compared acupuncture with ‘sham’ acupuncture in which needles were inserted into random places in the ear but not into the specific points required for treatment. The studies used a variety of acupuncture techniques, using three, four, or five of the treatment points. The studies had a number of problems with the way their results were reported. The authors conclude that there is no evidence that any form of auricular acupuncture is effective for treating cocaine dependence.
  • Acupuncture for schizophrenia: This review identifies randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture to antipsychotics and acupuncture combined with antipsychotics, to antipsychotics alone. The limited data we found provided mostly equivocal outcomes. Although some of the data did favour acupuncture when combined with antipsychotics, the results came from small studies, and further, more comprehensive trials are needed before we can confidently determine the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of schizophrenia.
  • Acupuncture for chronic asthma: The studies included in the review were of variable quality and had inconsistent results. Future research should concentrate on establishing whether there is a non-specific component of acupuncture which benefits recipients of treatment. There should be an assessment not merely of placebo treatment, but also of ‘no treatment’ as well. There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations about the value of acupuncture as a treatment for asthma based on current evidence.
  • Acupuncture for epilepsy: Patients with epilepsy are currently treated with antiepileptic drugs, but a significant number of people continue to have seizures and many experience adverse effects to the drugs. As a result there is increasing interest in alternative therapies and acupuncture is one of those. Eleven studies were included, however acupuncture has not yet been proven to be effective and safe for treating people with epilepsy.
  • Acupuncture for neck pain: We included 10 trails (661 participants) in this review that examined the effects of acupuncture on neck pain for individuals with chronic neck pain (lasting for at least three months). One study also included individuals with neck pain that lasted for at least six weeks, but they considered it to be chronic. Acupuncture was compared to sham acupuncture, waiting list, other sham treatments (sham laser, sham TENS) or other treatments (mobilization, massage, traction). Acupuncture treatments appear to be safe and only minor, transient and benign adverse effects were reported in the trials. The trials were of moderate methodological quality, but the number of participants in each trial was relatively low. There was a range of individuals studied, acupuncture techniques used and outcomes measured, so we could not combine the results of the trials to get an overall picture of the effectiveness of acupuncture. Therefore, we could only draw limited conclusions. Individuals with chronic neck pain who received acupuncture reported, on average, better pain relief immediately after treatment and in the short-term than those who received sham treatments. Individuals with chronic neck pain with symptoms radiating to the arms who received acupuncture reported, on average, better pain relief in the short-term than those who were on a waiting list.

It thus seems that most studies claim the need for more investigations. Also, several methodological shortcomings affect the scientific value of a good portion of the studies. Not too surprising, after all. A few studies do report that acupuncture seems effective in treating selected chronical conditions. Several others seem to prove that the positive effects of acupuncture are of the same magnitude of those of random applications, leading to the conclusion that what works in acupuncture is the placebo effect. However, it seems to me that the last word is not spelt yet.

After reviewing those documents, I remain possibilistic. I am convinced that the placebo effect has a strong influence, possibly explaining all of the alleged beneficial effects of acupuncture. Whether the targeting of nerves does add benefits to the placebo effect is not proven, but might still be true, in specific cases. However, even if such benefits exists, they must be of very small entity, making me doubt that the technique will survive the verdict of a new generation of deeper scientific tests.

To conclude this post, to show that the scientific literature still is undecided on the issue, let me quote a 2005 document, a 300-page review of the treatment of acute pain, Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence (Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists and Faculty of Pain Medicine), endorsed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). This exhaustive panoramic only has a single paragraph on acupuncture in Chapter 8:

Reviews of the effectiveness of acupuncture in an acute pain setting suggest that it may be useful for managing pain during childbirth (Smith et al 2003, Level I), idiopathic headache (Melchart et al 2001, Level I) and dental pain (Ernst & Pittler 1998, Level I). It may also be effective in treating postoperative pain. Both preoperative low and high frequency electro-acupuncture reduced postoperative analgesic requirements and the incidence of nausea and dizziness after lower abdominal surgery (Lin et al 2002, Level II). Acupuncture needles inserted preoperatively were also found to reduce postoperative pain, opioid consumption and nausea as well as plasma cortisol and adrenaline (epinephrine) levels (Kotani et al 2001, Level II).
Key message:
Acupuncture may be effective in some acute pain settings (Level I).

Comments

1. Anonymous - January 23, 2009

Classic acupuncture is nothing more than an elaborate placebo. It’s not effective.

Properly blinded studies with adequate controls confirm that time after time. For example:
http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2008/04/sham_acupuncture_is_better_than_true_acu.php

2. cormac - January 23, 2009

I’m not so sure. I have tried it as a last resort (for wrist RSI) and found it beneficial, against all my expectations. Hence it can hardly be a ‘placebo’ effect in my case!
Many of my music friends in the world of orchestral music have also found acupuncture beneficial. It may be that it works quite well for mild RSI and similar ailments (too mild for conventional medicine to tackle, but serious for a violinist).
How? you ask. I guess one explanation might be that the targeted pressure of the needles simply helps reduce small blockages in circulation, if they’re small enough. Truth is I don’t know, and I don’t much care as long as it works

3. Giulio - January 23, 2009

I am a physics student and I practice ju-jitsu.

I have seen a number of amazing things during the years, such as noticing how opening or closing my right hand can completely change the response of a pressure point on the left side of my neck.
Or the fact that the way I breath during a combat influences the amount of bruises that will appear on my arms the morning after.

I reached the conclusion that the description of our body through energy channels works.

While it obviously doesn’t have a physical reality it is an empirical model that leads to useful and interesting results, at least in the fields of martial arts.
Since acupuncture is based the same model derived from eastern traditions, it wouldn’t surprise me at all to find it works quite well in its most traditional form in a number of cases (obviously this has to experimentally detectable).

This is just to say that human body has a lot that has not yet been understood by modern medicine just because it’s too complicated for our actual knowledge, and that will probably be explained over the time, but can be currently studied with different models.

4. sciencetourist - January 23, 2009

Your mileage may vary but I’m suspicious of a cultural bias when this is discussed. There is verifiable evidence that acupuncture alters nitric oxide activity in the hippocampus. Dismissing this evidence would imply that we know how the hippocampus works, which we don’t.

I am also aware of a couple of personal serious non-scientific success stories. A middle aged person with extreme back and leg pain from an auto accident and years of athletic stress. The chiropracter’s office being closed she stumbled into an acupuncturist and after a session had largely diminished pain for the first time in years. A few sessions and she could walk without a cane, even run. If it was a placebo effect the outcome was the same as the pain did not return.

My hands gave out from over use and acupuncture plus yoga brought me back. Once again, easily dismissed as a placebo but a placebo with the desired result.

5. Kea - January 23, 2009

I come from a place where acupuncture has always been perfectly acceptable. I have never heard anyone say it is less effective than the western technique of attempting to diagnose patients without even listening to them.

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7. Charles Tye - January 24, 2009

My father, who was generally a very sceptical person, suffered from very painful shingles and once, much to my surprise, tried acupuncture.

One of the problems of testing it must be the difficulty of setting up a double-blind trial in order to eliminate any placebo effect. Even with sham needles, the practioner will still know if real acupuncture is being administered or not.

I find it quite plausible that sticking needles in one’s body (and evidence points to the fact that any part of the body will do) can alter one’s perception of pain, but then aspirins are so much cheaper and easier to take.

Incidentally, acupuncture didn’t help my father at all, not even as a placebo. But I thought it would be nice to post this information here to slightly redress the balance of confirmation bias, post hoc arguments and anecdotal evidence that always turns up in discussions like this.

I continue to enjoy reading the blog, T.

8. Michael Edson, MS, L.Ac. - January 24, 2009

There is good research showing that acupuncture can lower intraocular pressure as well as help keep the eyes healthy and nourished.

The most common pattern imbalance is referred to as “Liver Yang Rising”, where a Liver (meridian) imbalance results in excessive heat rising, resulting in higher eye pressure.

There are also important nutrients that can help protect the optic nerve from damage.

There are number of peer review studies that show the importance of supplementing with a specific nutrients can help protect the optic nerve from damage including the following: alpha lipoid acid, bilberry, pine bark, gingko biloba, taurine, magnesium, vitamin B12,

Other studies have shown that a healthy diet which included, for example, at least 1 serving of green leafy vegetables such as kale and collard greens, decreased the risk of getting glaucoma for women by 69 percent (Coleman AL, Stone KL, Kodjebacheva G, Yu F, Pedula KL, Ensrud KE, Cauley JA, Hochberg MC, Topouzis F, Badala F, Mangione C ; Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group)

For more related research studies, see the “Research” section at Natural Eye Care for Glaucoma Prevention

9. davidorban - January 24, 2009

I find it fascinating how scientists want to remain open minded about their own biases, and analyze their impact on the way they view the world in general, and comparative studies in particular. It is in stark contrast with a frequently more dogmatic approach of decision systems that are not based on verifiable claims. These hesitate much less in discarding and even disparaging scientific models of various phenomena.

The following is my case, and my experience, so that we can round out the possible combinations of cause and effect for acupuncture:
– acupuncture has never been helpful to me
– I have never tried acupuncture as a cure.
🙂

I have to check better, but I don’t think much has changed, and as editorial pressures increase in the economic downturn I assume this will be the case in the near future as well: there no, or very few cases of negative results, and failed experiments being published in Nature, or other scientific publications. Isn’t it possible that one of the biggest changes that PLOS-type of publication models could bring to the management of scientific experiments would be a wide inclusion of negative results?

10. Haelfix - January 24, 2009

Acupuncture is one of the only pseudosciences that I actually give some ‘plausible’ merit too, this despite the garbage explanation thats associated with it (chi meridians etc). I say this as a deep skeptic of all such things, but actually had it done once or twice as a kid for a knee injury. It proved far above my expectations and worked pretty damn convincingly and I of course went through the literature where I found the same mixed results.

One thing to keep in mind, the placebo effect is extremely strong. A good doctor even if he has no other solution, must always offer a placebo to the patient, even if it means tricking the patient.

Having said that, I wouldn’t be surprised if it was just a tiny bit above placebo in effectiveness for certain mild muscle pains (lower back pain). For whatever reason, it does appear to have a certain numbing effect, which I think is still subject of debate in academia.

11. jeffwyss - January 24, 2009

When a new pill come outs medical wisdom suggests you immediately prescribe it to your patients before the effect wears off.

Scientists know the placebo effect works but they don’t know how.

12. Charles Tye - January 24, 2009

I agree with Haelfix that doctors should in relevant cases use a placebo and that it can be very powerful. Acupuncture is a good example of just such a very powerful placebo.

However the consequence of prescribing treatments like this, whilst beneficial to the patient at hand, is the legitimisation of pseudoscientific woo and the spreading of misinformation and unreason to the public who may be later harmed by not seeking medical treatment when they need it. I would say that prescribing a “wonderful new treatment that is just approved” (but actually sugar pills) would be a more moral choice.

I would also like to reply to Giulio that I too have studied a martial art – for 25 years actually. In my experience, the amount of bruises I get on my arms is mainly correlated to the number of blows I block with them and the quality of technique in my blocks. I would however agree with Giulio that control of breathing is very important to good combat technique and muscle focus.

13. dorigo - January 24, 2009

Hi everybody,

thank you for posting your experience with the technique and your thoughts. I think David praises scientsts too much about their open-mindedness… I know at least a few who would not fill that bill.
Anyway, I think the more positive, possibilistic attitude toward acupuncture than toward homeopathy is due to the fact that the former does not really make a serious attempt at justifying the claims of its effectiveness with scientific-based “evidence”.

Cheers,
T.

14. cormac - January 24, 2009

In my case, I find myself going back every now and then, simply becuase it seems to work. I don’t pay the slightest attention to the ‘chi’ mumbo jumbo, but I do find I can play again without pain, quite a result!
As one of my violinist friends pointed out, Stradivarius did’nt know anything about the underlying theory of how a violin produces sound – but by a craft of trial and error, he produced far better violins than anyone today…

15. pedro - January 25, 2009

I think cormac hits on the nail: I don´t want my medical doctor to be a scientist. I want him to be … a medical doctor. And this might be closest to a craftsman (even an artist) than to a scientist. (However, I still want him to be a medical doctor and not an artist, or a craftsman).

Pedro.

16. JJ - January 25, 2009

I completely differ; I want my medial doctor to offer scientifically rigorous and sound diagnosis and advice.

17. jeffwyss - January 25, 2009

Doctors scientifically rigorous? Medicine a science? Hey we are getting into deep waters!

18. dorigo - January 26, 2009

Hi,

Cormac, trial and error with Stradivari worked well because a box of wood with a string does not usually have a nice sound. There is no analogue to the placebo effect in violin making.

Pedro, a doctor should use our scientific knowledge to cure us, not the superstition of our fathers. So I agree with JJ.

Jeff, I know doctors aren,t and medicine is not a science … because of patients! Not because of doctors themselves🙂

Cheers,
T.

19. jeffwyss - January 26, 2009

Tommaso. I disagree. Patients are not the cause of general practice medicine not being a science. Patients are simply being patients. You cann’t disentangle Medicine from patients. To think of some ideal Medicine without patients is nonsense. I feel that doctors, general practice and even many specialists, are superficial, ignorant and not at all humble. The general practitioners ignore details and the specialists ignore complementary specialities. Doctor House is a myth and if House types do exist somewhere they do in expensive and private research facilities. The incredible progress in medicine is due to a very tiny minority of research doctors and associated scientists. But the vast majority of doctors are not scientists and not scientific. Does science make Medicine progress? Yes. Is Medicine a science? No!

20. pedro - January 26, 2009

Hi Tomaso,

Sure, doctors should use our scientific knowledge. But also the trial and error wisdom from our fathers (you call it superstition, but what you call superstition I probably also call superstition…).

What I mean is that a scientist is mostly concerned on how the desease works. I want my doctor to care only about curing me, not about understanding why. (Now, of course, how can we advance knowledge without understanding, without a scientific point of view? We cannot.)

That what I meant when I say that the doctor should not be a scientist. Neither a craftsman. This might be obvious, however on the degree of what is just crackpot or what is worth a try, we all disagree. Cormac did try acupuncture, you did not. This might be because he plays violin and need (desperately) to stop the pain. You does not, for you a pain killer might be good enough.

Cheers,
Pedro.

21. liat - February 8, 2009

I am an 80-year old senior who was diagnosed with a severe case of shingles. Sofar, I have finished a treatment with Famvir, continue to take 600mg of Gabapentin a day. I dropped taking Tylenol w. Codeine a week ago, as it was ineffective in minimizing the excruciating pain. The shingles started in my right hand thumb, creeping up all the way to my shoulders. A 5mm diameter bubble in the middle of my palm is very painful to the touch; making my righthand useless. I am a righthander who now can only use his left hand. Desperate to decrease the constant pain, I went to see a certified acupuncturist yesterday, At first I thought that it was helpful, but the next morning, the pain was still there and my righthand remains useless. At this moment, I do not see that acupuncture is efficient in treating shingles. At the same time I must say that the drugs prescribed by my GP also do not work. What to do next? Any comments would be greatly appreciated.

dorigo - February 9, 2009

Dear Liat,

I understand your attempt with acupuncture. I think it will not do any good to you. I am unable to help unfortunately, but maybe you should try morphine if the pain is so acute. Only, I do not think it is easy to get it prescribed.

Good luck,
T.

judybrowni - August 10, 2009

Acupuncture is a process, more subtle than Western medicine.

You probably did receive some relief from your first session, but depending on the severity of your complaint it may take a series of sessions to fully address your medical problem.

I can say this from personal experience — also try to find an acupuncturist who also has a degree in Oriental medicine and can prescribe the appropriate herbs.

I came upon my acupuncturist after two years of Western medicine unable even to diagnose my problem, but increasing my suffering with slapdash guesswork for treatment and medication.

The number of sessions was up to me: after restoring my health, I’ve gone back once or twice for tweaking of different problems that came up, which only required a treatment or two.

Good luck, but I’d give acupuncture at least a half dozen sessions to kick in completely.

22. Maruti Shanbhag - June 17, 2009

I have been benefited by Korean hand acupuncture for my RSI. The therapy is new to the acupuncture world and is based on five element theory. There are some clinical trials done in Russia where it is widely used. For clinical trials refer to this link:
http://www.sujok.com.au/research

Maruti

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24. acupressure technique - October 26, 2009

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Please visit this site to learn more about Pranamat. This is so simple in use mat for acupressure technique and is made from 100% natural materials.

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